Glossary of Terms

What is Achilles tendonitis, Dupuytrens Contracture and Myofascial treatment? These and and more terms are briefly explained here.

Achilles tendonitis - Inflammation of the heel cord that is the extension from the triceps surae group of muscles.

ACL - Anterior cruciate ligament.

ALPSA lesion - Anterior labrum periosteal sleeve avulsion.

Arthritis - Inflammation of a joint.

Arthroplasty - Reconstructive surgery of a joint or joints to restore motion because of ankylosis or trauma or to prevent excessive motion.

Atrophy - Reduction in size of an anatomic structure, frequently related to disuse or decreased blood supply.

Bankart lesion - Avulsion of the anterior glenoid labrum which is usually associated with anterior shoulder dislocations.

Bennet lesion - Posterior glenoid defect associated with overhead throwing injuries.

Biomechanics - The application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body.

Bone cysts - A sac containing liquid or semisolid material on a bone.

Bone metastases - The spread of malignant cancer cells to bone.

Bunion - Overgrowth of bone on the dorsal surface of the metatarsal head or dorsal malposition of the 1st metatarsal.

Carpal tunnel syndrome - Loss of sensation and sometimes motor control if the median nerve is cut off at the wrist because of compression of the nerve at the carpal ligament.

Cerebal palsy - A general term applied to central nervous system disorders found at birth or infancy and affecting muscle control.

Chondrosarcoma - Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making cartilage.

Club feet - Turning of the heel inward with increased plantar fexion (the toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle).

Custom splint fabrication - Custom or prefabricated orthotic devices designed to support, protect or immobilise or to correct deformities of the hand/upper extremity.

Desensitisation - Treatment of hypersensitivitiy and pain secondary to nerve injury, partial nerve injury, nerve compression, and soft—tissue injuries.

Dupuytren's Contracture - A thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia of the hand resulting in flexion deformities of the finger.

Ewing's sarcoma - Malignant tumor of bone seen in children, composed of small round cells.

Flatfoot - Condition in which one or both arches have flattened out.

Hammer Toe - Variety of deformities on the second to fifth toes.

Hill-Sachs lesion - Bony defect in the humeral head caused by a shoulder dislocation.

Hip Dysplasia - Failure of normal bony modeling of the hip socket.

Iontophoresis - Process whereby ions in solution are transferred through the intact skin via electrical potential using bipolar electrodes.

Internal Glenoid Impingement - Pain syndrome caused by abrasion of the posterior labrum and rotator cuff.

Joint mobilisation - Use of specific passive procedures to restore accessory movements, stretch joint capsules and ligaments and to reduce pain and muscle guarding of stiff joints.

Kinematics - That phase of mechanics which deals with the possible motions of a material body.

Labral lesions - A fibrocartilaginous supporting structure which surrounds the glenoid bone in the shoulder.

Leg length inequity - One leg is shorter than the other. This is a common sequel of many congenital and acquired musculoskeletal diseases.

Malunion - State of healing of the bone in which bone unites but in abnormal position and/or alignment.

Multidirectional instability - Shoulder laxity in multiple directions which causes pain or dysfunction.

Muscular dystrophy - A group of degenerative disorders of muscle resulting in atrophy and weakness.

Myofascial treatment - Treatment of a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia.

Nerve block - Injection of anaesthetic around a nerve to determine if a particular nerve is responsible for causing pain, and to relieve pain.

Neuromuscular re-education - Used in cases of post operative care of surgical repair of nerve injuries. Involves the retraining of reinnervated muscles.

Nonunion - State of healing of the bone in which there is no healing.

Oedema Control - Methods and devices used to minimise persistent swelling in the hand or upper extremity.

Orthotics - The science that deals with orthoses designed to provide external control, correction and support. (orthoses = braces)

Osteoarthritis - Chronic arthritis, usually mechanical, not caused by inflammatory process.

Osteomyelitis - Inflammation of bone marrow, cortex, tissue and periosteum; can be caused by any organism, but usually bacteria.

Osteonecrosis - Death of bone tissue.

Osteosarcoma - Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making bone.

Osteotomy - Surgical procedure that changes the alignment of bone with or without removal of a portion of that bone.

Paget's Disease - Disease of excess bone removal and replacement with deformity.

PCL - Posterior cruciate ligament.

Peripheral nerve disorders - Problems involving numbness, tingling and weakness in the upper extremity.

Prosthetics - The science that deals with functional and/or cosmetic restoration for all or part of a missing limb. (prostheses = artificial limb)

Rotator Cuff Disease - Inflammation or rupture of one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.

Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome - Painful RTC abrasion by an overhanging acromion, AC joint, or coraco-acromial ligament.

Rotator Cuff Tear - Tear of the rotator cuff tendons. (Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, or Subscapularis)

Rotator Cuff Tendinosis - Degenerative changes in rotator cuff tendon that occur with age and with overuse.

Rotator Cuff Tendonitis - Inflammation of the rotator cuff and associated bursal sac.

Scar remodeling - Includes various methods and devices such as scar massage, pressure garments, serial casting, motion, stress and elastomeres or topical silicone gel pads.

SLAP - Lesion Superior labral lesion in the shoulder.

Tendon - The extension of muscle into a firm, fibrous cord that attaches into a bone or other firm structure.

Tendonitis - Inflammation of a tendon.

Tendinosis - Degenerative condition of the tendon often caused by overuse.

Tennis elbow - Stress tendonitis on the lateral epicondyle.

Torn anterior cruciate ligament - Tear in the deep ligament within the knee that are crossed.

Torn medial collateral ligament - A tear in the strong fibrous ligament on the medial side of the knee connecting the femur with the tibia.

Torn meniscus - A tear in the crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous disk between the two joint surfaces.

Torn rotator cuff - Tear in one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.

Total Joint Replacement - A joint replacement involing an internal prosthesis by removing the diseased joint and replacing the acetabluar components with either metal or plastic materials and a metal prosthesis of the femoral segment.

Trigger finger - Catching or locking of a finger.