Glossary of Terms
What is Achilles tendonitis, Dupuytrens Contracture and Myofascial treatment? These and and more terms are briefly explained here.
Achilles tendonitis - Inflammation of the heel cord that is the extension from the triceps surae group of muscles.
ACL - Anterior cruciate ligament.
ALPSA lesion - Anterior labrum periosteal sleeve avulsion.
Arthritis - Inflammation of a joint.
Arthroplasty - Reconstructive surgery of a joint or joints to restore motion because of ankylosis or trauma or to prevent excessive motion.
Atrophy - Reduction in size of an anatomic structure, frequently related to disuse or decreased blood supply.
Bankart lesion - Avulsion of the anterior glenoid labrum which is usually associated with anterior shoulder dislocations.
Bennet lesion - Posterior glenoid defect associated with overhead throwing injuries.
Biomechanics - The application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically to the locomotor system of the human body.
Bone cysts - A sac containing liquid or semisolid material on a bone.
Bone metastases - The spread of malignant cancer cells to bone.
Bunion - Overgrowth of bone on the dorsal surface of the metatarsal head or dorsal malposition of the 1st metatarsal.
Carpal tunnel syndrome - Loss of sensation and sometimes motor control if the median nerve is cut off at the wrist because of compression of the nerve at the carpal ligament.
Cerebal palsy - A general term applied to central nervous system disorders found at birth or infancy and affecting muscle control.
Chondrosarcoma - Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making cartilage.
Club feet - Turning of the heel inward with increased plantar fexion (the toe-down motion of the foot at the ankle).
Custom splint fabrication - Custom or prefabricated orthotic devices designed to support, protect or immobilise or to correct deformities of the hand/upper extremity.
Desensitisation - Treatment of hypersensitivitiy and pain secondary to nerve injury, partial nerve injury, nerve compression, and soft–tissue injuries.
Dupuytren's Contracture - A thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia of the hand resulting in flexion deformities of the finger.
Ewing's sarcoma - Malignant tumor of bone seen in children, composed of small round cells.
Flatfoot - Condition in which one or both arches have flattened out.
Hammer Toe - Variety of deformities on the second to fifth toes.
Hill-Sachs lesion - Bony defect in the humeral head caused by a shoulder dislocation.
Hip Dysplasia - Failure of normal bony modeling of the hip socket.
Iontophoresis - Process whereby ions in solution are transferred through the intact skin via electrical potential using bipolar electrodes.
Internal Glenoid Impingement - Pain syndrome caused by abrasion of the posterior labrum and rotator cuff.
Joint mobilisation - Use of specific passive procedures to restore accessory movements, stretch joint capsules and ligaments and to reduce pain and muscle guarding of stiff joints.
Kinematics - That phase of mechanics which deals with the possible motions of a material body.
Labral lesions - A fibrocartilaginous supporting structure which surrounds the glenoid bone in the shoulder.
Leg length inequity - One leg is shorter than the other. This is a common sequel of many congenital and acquired musculoskeletal diseases.
Malunion - State of healing of the bone in which bone unites but in abnormal position and/or alignment.
Multidirectional instability - Shoulder laxity in multiple directions which causes pain or dysfunction.
Muscular dystrophy - A group of degenerative disorders of muscle resulting in atrophy and weakness.
Myofascial treatment - Treatment of a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia.
Nerve block - Injection of anaesthetic around a nerve to determine if a particular nerve is responsible for causing pain, and to relieve pain.
Neuromuscular re-education - Used in cases of post operative care of surgical repair of nerve injuries. Involves the retraining of reinnervated muscles.
Nonunion - State of healing of the bone in which there is no healing.
Oedema Control - Methods and devices used to minimise persistent swelling in the hand or upper extremity.
Orthotics - The science that deals with orthoses designed to provide external control, correction and support. (orthoses = braces)
Osteoarthritis - Chronic arthritis, usually mechanical, not caused by inflammatory process.
Osteomyelitis - Inflammation of bone marrow, cortex, tissue and periosteum; can be caused by any organism, but usually bacteria.
Osteonecrosis - Death of bone tissue.
Osteosarcoma - Sarcoma in which cancer cells are making bone.
Osteotomy - Surgical procedure that changes the alignment of bone with or without removal of a portion of that bone.
Paget's Disease - Disease of excess bone removal and replacement with deformity.
PCL - Posterior cruciate ligament.
Peripheral nerve disorders - Problems involving numbness, tingling and weakness in the upper extremity.
Prosthetics - The science that deals with functional and/or cosmetic restoration for all or part of a missing limb. (prostheses = artificial limb)
Rotator Cuff Disease - Inflammation or rupture of one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.
Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome - Painful RTC abrasion by an overhanging acromion, AC joint, or coraco-acromial ligament.
Rotator Cuff Tear - Tear of the rotator cuff tendons. (Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, or Subscapularis)
Rotator Cuff Tendinosis - Degenerative changes in rotator cuff tendon that occur with age and with overuse.
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis - Inflammation of the rotator cuff and associated bursal sac.
Scar remodeling - Includes various methods and devices such as scar massage, pressure garments, serial casting, motion, stress and elastomeres or topical silicone gel pads.
SLAP - Lesion Superior labral lesion in the shoulder.
Tendon - The extension of muscle into a firm, fibrous cord that attaches into a bone or other firm structure.
Tendonitis - Inflammation of a tendon.
Tendinosis - Degenerative condition of the tendon often caused by overuse.
Tennis elbow - Stress tendonitis on the lateral epicondyle.
Torn anterior cruciate ligament - Tear in the deep ligament within the knee that are crossed.
Torn medial collateral ligament - A tear in the strong fibrous ligament on the medial side of the knee connecting the femur with the tibia.
Torn meniscus - A tear in the crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous disk between the two joint surfaces.
Torn rotator cuff - Tear in one or more of the tendons that lie deep in the shoulder and bridge the glenohumeral joint.
Total Joint Replacement - A joint replacement involing an internal prosthesis by removing the diseased joint and replacing the acetabluar components with either metal or plastic materials and a metal prosthesis of the femoral segment.
Trigger finger - Catching or locking of a finger.